By Kinza Asghar Khan, PharmD

Up-Dated at 03-Feb-2024

Breast milk is often referred to as nature’s perfect food, providing all the necessary nutrients for a growing baby. However, in some cases, breastfed babies may require additional supplements to ensure they are getting the proper nutrition for optimal growth and development. This can be due to a variety of reasons, such as maternal deficiency, the baby’s increased nutrient requirements, or limited access to nutrient-rich solid foods.

If you are wondering what supplements your breastfed baby may need, you’ve come to the right place. In this article, we’ll discuss some of the most important supplements that may be recommended for breastfed infants.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is important for blood clotting, which is essential for preventing bleeding disorders in infants. Breast milk lacks optimal quantity of vitamin K required by the baby, which is why the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all newborns receive a single dose of vitamin K injection shortly after birth.

A healthy child will not require any additional vitamin K supplements after the initial newborn dose. Breastfed infants who did not receive the vitamin K injection may require ongoing supplementation until they start eating solid foods that are rich in vitamin K, such as leafy green vegetables.

The optimal daily dose of vitamin K for infants is around 2 mcg per kilogram of body weight per day. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider before giving any vitamin K supplements to an infant.


Iron is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in your baby’s growth and development. It is required to produce red blood cells, which transport oxygen throughout the body. Without enough iron, your baby may develop anemia, which can have serious long-term effects on its health and development.

Fortunately, breast milk contains some iron, although it may be in relatively small amounts. However, this is usually enough to meet your baby’s needs because they absorb the iron in breast milk very efficiently. In fact, breastfed babies absorb iron from breast milk more effectively than they do from infant formula.

As your baby grows, their iron stores begin to deplete around the age of 6 months. This coincides with the time when you will start introducing solid foods to their diet, which is an excellent opportunity to increase their intake of iron-rich foods.

Although not all breastfed babies require iron supplements once they reach 6 months of age, it is essential to ensure that your baby is getting enough iron through their diet.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that breastfed infants receive a daily iron supplement starting around 4-6 months of age, especially if they are not eating iron-rich solid foods, such as meat, beans, and fortified cereals.

The optimal daily dose of iron for infants is around 1 mg per kilogram of body weight per day. Too much iron can be harmful, so it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before giving any iron supplements to an infant.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is important for bone health, as it helps the body absorb calcium and supports the development of strong bones. Breast milk is generally low in vitamin D, and infants who are exclusively breastfed may not get enough from breast milk alone.

Vitamin D also helps the immune system and may help prevent infections. Insufficient vitamin D levels can result in the development of rickets, a condition that affects the bone health of a child.

Rickets can cause bones to become soft and can interfere with their growth and development. In addition to stunted growth, children with rickets may experience discomfort, pain, and bone deformities, such as bow legs.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU starting in the first few days of life. The optimal daily dose of vitamin D for infants is around 400-600 IU per day, depending on their individual needs. Too much vitamin D can be harmful, so it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before giving any vitamin D supplements to an infant.


Probiotics are live bacteria that can provide various health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts. Breastfed infants may particularly benefit from probiotic supplements, as they can help support a healthy gut microbiome. A healthy gut microbiome is essential for proper digestion, immune function, and overall health.

Probiotic supplementation for breastfed infants can help prevent digestive issues such as colic, constipation, and diarrhea. In addition, probiotics may also help prevent allergies and other health problems.

While probiotics can be found in certain foods such as yogurt and kefir, it may be necessary to supplement a breastfed infant’s diet with probiotics to ensure they are getting enough beneficial bacteria.

The optimal dose of probiotics for infants is around 1-10 billion CFUs (colony-forming units) per day, depending on the specific strains of bacteria used. However, it is important to note that probiotic supplementation should always be discussed with a healthcare provider before administering it to an infant.

This is because certain strains of bacteria may not be suitable for infants, and too many of certain strains can also have negative effects on an infant’s health.

Omega 3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the healthy development and function of the brain and particularly important for infants who are in a critical period of rapid brain growth. While breast milk does contain some omega-3 fatty acids, it may not provide sufficient amounts to meet the needs of a growing baby.

For this reason, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA, may be recommended for breastfed infants.

The optimal dose of omega-3 fatty acids for infants is around 50-100 mg of DHA per day, and supplements are often derived from algae, a vegetarian DHA source. However, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before giving any omega-3 supplements to an infant, as they may interact with certain medications or have unwanted side effects.


Fluoride is a mineral that is essential for your child’s oral health. It helps to strengthen the enamel on their teeth and prevent cavities. Fortunately, breast milk contains fluoride, so your baby will receive some of this essential mineral during the first six months of life.

However, after six months, you may need to consider fluoride supplements for your little one, depending on their diet and your water supply. If your drinking water does not contain enough fluoride, your pediatrician might recommend a fluoride supplement for your child.

In many areas, fluoride is added to the local water supply, so be sure to check with your water company to see if your water contains enough fluoride. If you use bottled water, check the label to see if it contains fluoride.

Supplements for infants with special circumstances

Breastfeeding provides essential nutrients for healthy full-term infants. However, certain circumstances might require additional vitamin supplements for your baby. Here are some special circumstances that might require additional supplements:

Premature birth

Premature infants have different nutritional needs compared to full-term infants. As they don’t have the same iron stores as full-term infants, they might require more vitamins and minerals than breast milk or formula can provide. The amount and type of supplements required for preemies depend on their overall health and how early they were born.

Special health concerns

Babies born with certain health conditions or needs might need iron or other vitamins and minerals earlier than others. Your child’s unique health situation will determine whether additional supplements are necessary.

Post-weight loss surgery

Mothers who have undergone gastric bypass surgery can still breastfeed. However, it’s important to inform your child’s doctor of your surgery, as you might need additional vitamins and supplements after the procedure.

Your baby might also require supplements, and your healthcare team will monitor your health and your baby’s to ensure that both of you are adequately nourished.


Meat and dairy products are the main sources of vitamin B12. If you follow a vegan diet, your breast milk might not provide enough of this essential vitamin for your baby.
While taking a B12 supplement during pregnancy and lactation might be enough, your baby might need a supplement if your B12 levels are low.


In conclusion, ensuring optimal nutrition for your baby is crucial for their growth and development. Breastfeeding is recommended as the best source of nutrition for infants. However, in some cases, supplementation may be necessary to provide essential nutrients.

It is important to consult with your child’s pediatrician before starting any supplementation. NowBegins offers vitamin and mineral supplements that are carefully formulated to support your child’s nutrition. We are committed to being a trusted partner in your child’s health journey. Read More

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